GALENA - a slope stability analysis system software designed to solve geotechnical problems quickly and accurately using models that simulate geological conditions

GALENA Categories: civil engineering, geotechnical, slope analysis

GALENA Description

The U.S. Government's Office of Surface Mining selected GALENA as their Slope Analysis Software Package!


GALENA Version 3.1 is a fast 32-bit Windows-based program containing many new enhancements and features. Since the last update/release of Version 3.0 in March 2001, over 60 changes, improvements and additions have been made to GALENA with the release of Version 3.1 - we trust you will find many of those listed here practical and useful.

Ease of Use...

  • The Main Toolbar and Data Definition Toolbar have been redesigned and ToolTips updated.
  • The Main Toolbar is able to be shown/hidden with the default being shown.
  • Buttons on the Main Toolbar and the Data Definition Toolbar have been redesigned, particularly the Reload and Next Analysis buttons to bring them into line with the more common conventions of forward and backward pointing arrows.
  • A button has been added to the Main Toolbar for New Analysis, and the Zoom In and Zoom Out options/buttons are combined into a toggle action Zoom button.
  • The Define-End option name and End Processing button name have both been changed to 'Model Definition Complete' to more reflect the role of this option in signaling the end of model definition and prompting for file-save, or for saving only what has been defined up to that stage.
  • Display of both toolbars at the same time is now possible as the Data Definition Toolbar has been moved from the top of the main window and is able to be shown/hidden on either the left or right sides, or at the bottom above the status bar. The default position is the left side of the window for screen resolutions above 800x600 and the bottom of the window for screen resolutions of 800x600 or less.
  • A model file is only reloaded after using Datasheet if the model file was edited in Datasheet.
  • The View Error Log option is now always available during a GALENA session, and therefore accessible during most operations.
  • Use of shortcut keys has been increased for commonly used features and options:
    • F2 - opens the on-line Users' Guide;
    • F4 - initiates the Process option;
    • F8 - initiates the View Analysis Results option;
    • F11 - opens the Preferences dialog.
    • Other previously utilized shortcuts are shown against menu options.


  • A Recently-Used-Files section has been added to the File menu group with displayed names of up to the last nine files opened or saved. Any of the named Recently-Used-Files can be opened by selection with the mouse, cursor keys or adjacent key-sensitive numbers.
  • Allowable file name lengths have been increased to provide for file names of up to 32 characters and long directory names or paths - file names, including the path (drive and directory names), can now be a maximum of 254 characters. Wherever file names are displayed, they now include as much of the path as possible within space constraints. File names longer than 32 characters may not always be fully displayed - file names of less than 32 characters are recommended. Error messages are included to advise of over-length combined path and file names.
  • Model files double-clicked in Windows Explorer are now opened and loaded when GALENA opens and runs. The comments in the previous paragraph regarding path and file name lengths apply to files opened using this facility.
  • A 'Read-Only' status encountered upon opening a GALENA model file (.gmf) is automatically removed to allow saving and updating of model parameters that may be changed. The likelihood of 'Read-Only' files being encountered has increased with the propensity of email and the transfer of files as attachments - during such transfers, it is not uncommon for the 'Read-Only' status to have been set, generally unbeknown to the recipient. This change should prevent any occurrence of file opening errors.
  • Support and use of 24-bit color is included and all colors in GALENA are based on such, allowing access to a theoretical 16 million colors wherever color is used. PCs that do not use 24-bit color will have color displayed from a 256-color palette. PC support for 24-bit color display is determined/displayed on the Help-About Galena dialog (Main Toolbar Information icon).
  • Windows Print Manager supports 24-bit color, however, color or equivalent grayscale printing is dependent on the printer and printer driver used.
  • The Preferences dialog has been redesigned with some groups being renamed and descriptions improved/expanded where possible.
  • When the Browse option in Preferences is selected, the initial location for the Default Model File Location, when none is defined, has been changed away from the GALENA program directory to the root directory on drive C.
  • Options have been added to the Preferences dialog for:
    • The definition of Hardcopy Image Line Width - primarily for printers of high resolution where the normal line width may cause faint images.
    • Selection of a default setting for on-screen display of the Background Grid at startup.
    • Selection of a default setting for pure Black and White printing - for printing of black and white only images to a color printer or color graphics image file.
    • Selection of a default position for the Data Definition Toolbar - the choices are none (not displayed), Left side of the main window (vertically), Right side of the main window (vertically), and the Bottom of the main window (horizontally above the status bar).
  • As an aid to identification a brief descriptive summary (file header) including file name, save time and date is added to all GALENA Model Files when saved - the file header is included when Model Files are printed.
  • The File-Save As option has been updated to include the model file name in the file header.
  • When a GALENA Version 1 or Version 2 data file (*.dat) is opened GALENA automatically performs a conversion and creates a Version 3 model file. The Version 3 model file is then opened and displayed on-screen. Information on such conversions is recorded in the Error Log. The Version 1 or Version 2 data file is retained unaltered.
  • The availability of the Escape option (Esc key) is now flagged on the Status Bar. The Escape option is available when a model file is opened or is being loaded; selection of the Esc key moves GALENA out of EDIT mode and provides access to the Datasheet option. Datasheet allows the user to view and/or edit the model file. Editing of GALENA model files in Datasheet is not recommended unless users are fully familiar with the model file format.
  • A Close option has been added to the File menu group together with a Close button on the main toolbar. This option provides for complete closure of a selected model file and activates menu options for selecting Analysis Results to be viewed or printed. Definition parameters are also reset and GALENA moves out of EDIT mode - File-New must be selected to reenter EDIT mode and begin definition of a new model. The Close option is similar to the File-New option except that File-New additionally sets some defaults and enters EDIT mode, ready for model definition.
  • A Save-Yes/No/Cancel dialog for unsaved model data has been added and is displayed with the File-New, File-Open, File-Close, File-Exit, Process and Escape options, and when model files are selected from the recently used files listing on the File menu.
  • A Save-Yes/No/Cancel dialog for has also been added for the Define-Model Definition Complete option (and toolbar button) - when this option is selected and there are model parameters and/or analyses defined subsequent to the current analysis, the dialog is displayed to allow subsequent parameters/analyses to be saved or discarded.

...Presentation and Definition...

  • When a model file is opened, the total number of analyses defined is determined and displayed on the status bar with the analysis number in the form of number/total (e.g., Analysis 2/6 for analysis number 2 of a total of 6 analyses defined). The total for new models is also shown and updated as model definition proceeds, and as new analyses are added to existing models.
  • When drawing surfaces and profiles with mouse-draw the point number and maximum number that can be defined are displayed on the Status Bar.
  • The Define-Auto Image option and data definition toolbar button have been removed and incorporated into the Define-Image Window option and data definition toolbar button as a toggle operation. If the Image Window option is unchecked (toolbar button not depressed) selection accesses the Image Window dialog; if the Image Window option is checked (toolbar button depressed) selection removes the image window, thereby allowing GALENA to automatically determine window size.
  • Reading and checking of model file data has been improved with additional error checking and reporting when model files are opened and loaded.
  • All data definition dialogs have been re-jigged or redesigned to reduce their size by reducing button size and blank space, where possible.
  • The Analysis Number displayed on dialogs during data definition and processing is now displayed within the dialog title bar rather than within a dialog field.
  • Allowable length of the Project Title has been extended from 80 to 110 characters to take full advantage of the available space on the results image hardcopy.
  • A column for color has been added to the Material and Water Properties dialog to allow selection of a color to represent each material type used in a model. When the mouse is clicked on or the cursor is moved to the color cell for a particular material type/number, a Color dialog is displayed allowing selection of a predefined color or selection of any color from the display area using the mouse - there is also a slide bar to aid with color/shade selection. The choice is from a theoretical 16 million colors for 24-bit color displays or from 256 colors for 256-color (8-bit) displays. If a color is not selected, then a default white is used.
  • Once the material and water properties are accepted, a narrow band is displayed below the profile or profiles in the color selected to represent the material type below that profile. If a material type is used  more than once in a model, more than one profile will be shown with a band of that color.
  • The color band is included on the Analysis Results image on-screen and also printed for both the model image and Analysis Results image - the color band is only displayed for profiles within the slope for Analysis Results in much the same way as profile lines are displayed.
  • Gray shading is used for color bands on monochrome printers that support such. All colors used are carried across to the Windows clipboard.
  • Selection of the Material Type beneath a profile on the Material Profiles dialog can now be based on the material description as well as the numeric material type - if a material type is not selected, the default is type 1. To utilize this feature fully, material and water properties should be defined before material profiles. Menu and Data Definition toolbar orders have been changed to reflect this enhancement.
  • Changes have been made to the Piezometric Surfaces dialog to show the total number of surfaces defined for an analysis when the dialog is displayed. Additionally, the selection of the Material Profile number that the piezometric surface is to act within now displays the material Description for that profile as well as the Material Profile number - the material Description is only shown if a description was entered (Material and Water Properties dialog) for the material type selected for the material profile.
  • Changes have also been made to the Sarma Slices dialog to show the total number of slices defined for an analysis when the dialog is displayed. Additionally, the need to enter a value of minus one (-1.0) in the slice properties fields to prompt GALENA to automatically calculate slice properties from surrounding materials has been removed - signaling of automatic determination is by means of an Auto checkbox adjacent to each of the property fields.
  • If the Auto box is checked, GALENA will automatically calculate properties for the relative property or for both if both Auto boxes are checked. When properties are to be entered, the Auto box should be unchecked. Both Auto boxes will be checked by default.
  • An error message has been added to prevent access when the Piezometric Surfaces option is selected and material profiles have not been defined.
  • When Material Profiles and an equivalent number of Piezometric Surfaces have been defined and the number of Material Profiles is reduced, the number of Piezometric Surfaces is reduced to match (there can only be one Piezometric Surface in each Material Profile).
  • The Material Profile, Piezometric Surface and Sarma Slice routines have been modified to allow editing (and saving) of single profiles/surfaces/slices within multiple definitions. It is now possible to select the appropriate option and go to the profile/surface/slice to be edited, using the Next Profile/Surface/Slice option, make the change and then simply select OK.
  • If there are definitions subsequent to that edited, a dialog will be displayed advising of such and requesting confirmation to keep such definitions - the default is Yes. If No is selected at this point all subsequent definitions will be ignored, removed from the on-screen display and not written to disk when the model is saved. This option does not apply if errors in the data are detected or the data is incorrectly defined.
  • The information message displayed when the Sarma slice option is chosen and Sarma is not the defined method for that analysis, has been altered so that any defined slices are displayed, but they will not be saved for that analysis unless a Sarma Analysis or Sarma BackAnalysis method is selected. The information message advises of such, and an additional advisory message is displayed if an Analysis or BackAnalysis method other than Sarma is defined followed by removal of the slices from the display.  Slices thus defined will no longer be carried forward to subsequent Sarma analyses unless a Sarma Analysis or BackAnalysis is first defined. Defined slice information, however, can be retrieved at any time during the current model definition by selecting the Sarma Slice option.
  • During redesign of the Restraints dialog, additional descriptive labels have been placed against the definable parameters - there has been some confusion when using Restraints whereby failure surface definition values have been entered for the Restraints range. The ranges refer to ranges of variation around the initial values used to define the failure surface and, in most cases, should not be a repeat of the failure surface values.
  • The maximum values that can be defined for the number of Restraint trial positions has been increased to 999, and the cap on the maximum number of trial surfaces that can be analyzed during a multiple analysis has been removed. It is now possible to define Restraint positions that result in excess of 100,000 trial analyses being undertaken within a single multiple analysis. Although this may be possible, it would generally be unlikely when using the approach of running an analysis with a smaller number and then repeating such around the critical failure surface determined.
  • The maximum number of definable positions (999) allows greater focus on a particular parameter or area, and together with removal of the trial surface cap, provides users with greater flexibility.
  • The number of colors that can be used for Annotation/Labels has been increased from 7 to 15 on the Annotation/Labels dialog.
  • A number of additional status bar messages are included to advise of data and/or files saves and data that is discarded or retained. A two-second delay is included with some of these messages where a subsequent message would normally appear immediately.

...Analysis and Results...

  • AutoSave now extends to the Process option as well as the View-Next Analysis option in that both options will trigger an automatic save if AutoSave is operational.
  • If the on-screen model image is zoomed and the Process option is selected, the Zoom function will be deactivated before processing begins. Zoom settings will no longer be carried to the Analysis Result image - use of the Window option is recommended for close-up model views.
  • The Process option (for processing of a model file) can now be selected while a model file is open, i.e., in EDIT mode. If AutoSave is operational (see Preferences), any changes to the model are automatically saved and the model processed. If AutoSave is not operational, the user is asked if any changes should be saved - if Yes is selected, the changes are saved before processing; if No is selected, the changes are discarded before processing; if Cancel is selected, the changes are not saved and the model is not processed.
  • The Analysis Results dialog has been redesigned and another dialog added for BackAnalysis results Criteria. The Reported Errors section on both dialogs has been moved and is only displayed when anomalies are reported during an analysis or backanalysis - resizing of the dialog for display of Reported Errors is automatic.
  • Additional information is now included in the Analysis Results dialog, the Analysis Results file and the Analysis Results hardcopy to indicate when a critical failure surface from a previous multiple analysis has been used as a seed surface for the current analysis. Critical circular surfaces can be used for Bishop analyses and Spencer-Wright circular and non-circular analyses, and critical non-circular surfaces can be used for Spencer-Wright non-circular analyses and Sarma analyses - for single and multiple analyses in all cases.
  • Error messages generated within individual analyses during a multiple analysis or backanalysis have been redirected to the Error Log. This includes messages advising of geometry and non-convergence that may or may not be of significance. An advisory note is added to the Reported Errors area of the Analysis Results dialog and BackAnalysis Criteria dialog suggesting examination of the Error Log for detail. This potentially avoids a myriad of on-screen error messages that would otherwise interrupt smooth and rapid multiple analyses or backanalyses while still providing valuable analysis information.
  • A floating menu has been added for post-analysis display and printing options and is available when the Analysis Results or BackAnalysis Results image is displayed after each analysis. Clicking the right mouse button when the mouse cursor is positioned over the Analysis Results or BackAnalysis Results image window will bring up the floating menu. Floating menu options provide for:
    • Failure Surface Display - provides for display of additional failure surfaces from multiple analyses. The selection by default is the critical surface only or can be for a number of the lowest Factor of Safety surfaces to be displayed simultaneously. The number that is available for display is shown on the dialog and is based on the minimum of the default number saved (currently 40) and the number of successful multiple analysis surfaces. The lowest FoS surfaces will be displayed in light gray and the critical surface will be displayed in red with a thicker line width.
    • The Figure Number option allows selection of a predefined prefix, a user-defined prefix or no prefix as well as a defined string to be entered. The prefix and defined string will appear on the printed page in the box above the Licensee's name (lower right corner). The prefix and string can each be approximately 10-15 alphanumeric characters (length is based on what can be entered into the provided field on the dialog). If no prefix is required, a prefix option should not be selected.
    • The Page Setup option provides access to the Page Setup dialog with options for page definition, margin definition and printer selection.
    • The Print Options option provides selection of the number of copies to be printed (hardcopy only); the option of Pure Black and White printing allowing printing to be directed to a color printer but to be printed in black and white only; and the selection of a print Destination.
    • The Print Destination allows for printing to a graphics file in one of eleven selectable formats - each file created will have the extension shown on the list of formats (e.g., .emf for a Windows Enhanced Metafile). Where possible, the analysis number will be appended to the file name for the graphics file created for each analysis (e.g., for model file name Test where a Windows Enhanced Metafile is to be created for the results of analysis 2, the file name will be Test_2.emf). All graphics files created will be stored in the default model file location. The Print Destination will be the selected hardcopy printer by default.
    • The Copy to Clipboard option copies the current Analysis Result or BackAnalysis Result image with results/criteria (as would be produced on printer hardcopy) to the Windows Clipboard - the contents can then be pasted into other Windows programs that can accept graphic images. This option therefore becomes ideal for inclusion of GALENA result images into reports and the like produced with programs such as Word and WordPerfect.
    • The View Error Log option allows viewing of the Error Log - closing the Error Log view window will return the Results or Criteria dialog and refresh the display.
  • The floating menu options (except Copy to Clipboard and View Error Log) apply when the Print button on the Results or Criteria dialog is selected, and only apply for the result image displayed. These options will revert to defaults once the Print button has been selected. Page Setup settings are the exception and follow the general rules of their use (margins and orientation are saved and become defaults; a printer selected thus is for the current GALENA session only).
  • The options for Page Setup and View Error Log are also available on the main menu while the result image and dialog are displayed.
  • Measurement units for page margins are now automatically determined from the Windows Control Panel: Regional Settings: Number: Measurement System setting, and as such, the option for selection of such has been removed from the Preferences dialog.
  • A description of what is being printed from GALENA is now passed to Windows Print Manager for identification in the print queue of the selected or default print device.
  • A number of layout changes have been made to the Result Image hardcopy to bring it into line with the terminology used within GALENA and to improve readability and understanding.
  • The date of the last write/save for a model file has been added to the Analysis Results hardcopy under the heading of Chronology along with the processing date for the model file.
  • Result outputs have been standardized; Analysis Results readability improved; the Current Model image has been redesigned; and the Analysis Results image has been redesigned - modifications to all outputs (file and hardcopy) allow for the display of longer file names and titles.
  • The Material Description (from Material and Water Properties) has been added to the result file adjacent to material profiles to better indicate the relevant material type selected for each profile.
  • The Material Description (from Material and Water Properties) has also been added to the result file adjacent to piezometric surfaces to better indicate the relevant material profile selected for the piezometric surface to act within.
  • The number of trial positions for Multiple Analysis Restraints has been added to the result file when non-circular surfaces are defined, and the descriptions and layout for such improved.


  • The BackAnalysis functions have been reorganized and all BackAnalysis options are now available through one single option/button instead of the previous four options/buttons. With this change, a new option for Multiple BackAnalysis has been introduced - backanalyses can be run on the one model for a single material type and minimum phi, but for up to ten different Factors of Safety. Each curve will be labeled with the Factor of Safety (FoS) and placed on the one image for easy comparison, use in sensitivity studies and the like.
  • All options and definitions for single and multiple BackAnalysis are selected or entered on the one dialog (BackAnalysis option) - selection of the 'Multiple' option for 'Type' on this dialog will cause the dialog to be expanded allowing access to the multi-FoS entry grid. A Multiple BackAnalysis is now regarded as one analysis for purposes of the Analysis Number.
  • The 'Initialize' and 'Generate' options and commands from previous versions have been removed and these commands are now redundant. Previously generated model/data files containing these options/commands will be automatically converted at file opening and saved in v3.1 format in the same model file (i.e., the model file is overwritten).
  • Factors of Safety for multiple backanalyses can be entered in any order. Galena will sort values by increasing the order before saving and/or processing.
  • This new reorganized/condensed option for BackAnalysis is much easier to use and understand and much faster for data entry and operation. This should prove very useful to many users, particularly for sensitivity studies. An updated example file (Example07.gmf) is provided that includes both single and multiple backanalyses. The example model file included is in version 3.0 format, and when opened is automatically converted to version 3.1 format. This example file, once converted, contains 11 analyses instead of the 16 for version 3.0 and earlier.

...and Other Changes and Improvements

  • Version 3.1 is shipped with the latest Acrobat Reader (version 5.0), released late April 2001.
  • And lastly, the Users' Guide has been reviewed and largely rewritten to include all of the changes and new features, and in a 'Plain English' manner. Where appropriate, sections have been combined, expanded or removed.

Other enhancements within GALENA, which are not immediately visible to the user have resulted in faster definition and analysis of models and provide greater ease-of-use.


GALENA Version 3 is a 32 bit Microsoft Windows-based program designed to run on IBM compatible PC's running either Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows NT4 or Windows 2000.

Basic System (including network-based Workstation PCs)

Intel 486 and Pentium PC's

32MB (minimum); 64MB (recommended minimum). GALENA requires approximately 5MB over and above Windows requirements to load and operate.

Operating System:  
Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Me, Windows NT4, or Windows 2000.

SVGA 800x600 (minimum); MGA 1024x768 or better (recommended).

Standalone License (in addition to Basic System)

Disk Drives:
CD-ROM drive (for program installation); 3.5" floppy drive (for software security system).

Available Disk Space:

Parallel printer port (for parallel hardware security key); USB port (for USB hardware security key).

Network License  (in addition to Basic System)

Windows or Novell network - no defined protocol. Versions of GALENA may be available for other network variants - please contact us with any specific requirements.

As for Basic System.

Available Disk Space:
20MB (workstations); 10MB (server).

GALENA Overview
GALENA Detailed Description

Scientific Software Group    P.O. Box 708188   Sandy, Utah 84070
Phone (801) 208-3011   Toll Free (U.S.) 1-866-620-9214    Fax (801) 302-1160    E-mail
Copyright 1998   Scientific Software Group    All rights reserved